One of the early focus areas was Fish Vaccine against viral nervous necrosis (VNN), caused by the viral pathogen Nervous necrosis virus (NNV). As an endemic disease, VNN poses a severe production constraint for many cultured species worldwide. Initial inactivated VNN vaccines offered improvement but were inconsistent. More contemporary recombinant and subunit vaccines have demonstrated improved efficacy and safety. Other significant viral targets include infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV).

As fish vaccine technologies advance, aligned regulatory frameworks guide their safe and effective development and application. National and regional regulatory bodies evaluate product safety, efficacy, and quality according to performance standards and guidelines. As aquaculture expands to new geographies and species, there is growing recognition of regional differences in fish health challenges that must inform context-specific solutions. The considerable progress made in fish vaccination over recent decades validates this as a viable disease control method supporting sustainable aquaculture growth. Looking ahead, newer applications may involve vaccines targeting emerging pathogens of concern or those developed for use in new species cultivated through diversifying production systems. Overall, continued progress in fish vaccine development promises to strengthen the long-term prospects of a burgeoning aquaculture industry.


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